- Promote a growth mindset
- Promote perseverance
- Nurture motivation to learn
- Facilitate goal setting
- Facilitate emotion regulation
- Integrate mindfulness practices
Promote a Growth MindsetCarol Dweck and other researchers have observed that rewarding effort, grit, and perseverance helps children and adolescents develop a growth mindset -- the belief that you can learn and achieve by making persistent efforts. By contrast, those who have a "fixed" mindset believe that innate ability, rather than effort, determines success. A growth mindset increases learning and exploration as well as the ability to handle frustration and failure, while a fixed mindset can lead to a sense of inadequacy as well as failure to keep trying if success isn't achieved right away.
Strategies to promote a growth mindset include:
- Educate youth about growth and fixed mindsets
- Discourage labels -- such as "smart" or "dumb" -- that convey fixed ability
- Praise effort, strategies, and progress, not intelligence or abilities
- Provide challenging activities with the understanding that challenges are fun and mistakes help people learn and improve
Carol Dweck's website describes her research and findings. It also provides an online self-assessment and strategies to develop a growth mindset.
Carol Dweck - A Study on Praise and Mindsets
This video describes Carol Dweck's research on the effects of praise on students. The study involved over 400 fifth-graders from all over the United States.
Video (5 minutes)
Mindset and Motivation in Adolescence
"Growth" and "fixed" mindsets have an impact on our levels of achievement and how we feel about failure and learning. In this article, Kristen Elmore introduces the research on mindsets.
Encouraging Growth Mindsets
Growth mindsets support learning, while fixed mindsets can make us reluctant to challenge ourselves. How can people who work with adolescents encourage them to adopt growth mindsets?
The Mindset Kit is a free set of online lessons and practices designed to help you teach and foster adaptive beliefs about learning. Resources for mentors, educators, and parents are included. Created by the Project for Education Research that Scales (PERTS).
Growth Mindset for 9th Graders
On this site, PERTS provides an evidence-based program designed to increase students' engagement, motivation, and success by laying the foundation for a growth mindset. Free to high schools.
Mindset Works: Motivate Students to Grow Their Minds!
These web pages contain videos about Carol Dweck's work and research, as well as interviews with teachers and students.
Step it Up 2 Thrive: Growth Mindset
These web pages from the Thrive Foundation for Youth include reading material, youth activities, lesson plans, and tips on how to develop growth mindsets.
WKCD: Growth Mindset and Why It Matters
What Kids Can Do (WKCD) has assembled five short videos that provide a lively introduction to the growth mindset for students as well as teachers.
Angela Lee Duckworth: The Key to Success? Grit
This TED Talk by psychologist Angela Lee Duckworth highlights her research on grit and perseverance as key factors for success.
TED Talk (6 minutes)
Insight Center: Perseverance
This site offers examples of programs that intentionally cultivate perseverance, as well as program strategies and relevant research. Resources are compiled by Boston After School & Beyond and their partners.
Edutopia: Teaching Grit Cultivates Resilience and Perseverance
In rural New Hampshire, fifth-grade teacher Amy Lyon has created a curriculum based on researcher Angela Lee Duckworth's ideas about grit. Students set and work toward their own long-term goals, learning valuable lessons about dealing with frustration and distractions along the way.
Video (6 minutes)
Nurture Motivation to Learn
How Youth Learn: a Portfolio to Inform and Inspire Educators, Students, Parents & More
Part of the WKCD "How Youth Learn" Portfolio, The Motivation Equation is a free e-manual on inspiring young people to learn. The portfolio includes additional resources such as research highlights and student voices, as well as multimedia education tools such as the video Ned's Gr8 8: An Insider's Guide to the Teenage Brain.
Fires in the Mind
Based on the book of the same title, this WKCD website provides resources and practical tips on how to engage young people in learning skills.
Facilitate Goal SettingTo facilitate goal setting, invite reflection about life purpose and the future. Ask questions like:
- What are your hopes and dreams?
- Which one is most important to you just now?
- What can you do now to bring that dream a little closer?
- What do you love doing most?
- What do you do that makes you feel really good about yourself?
- Who do you really admire and why?
Edutopia: Setting S.M.A.R.T Goals
This page provides a video and lesson plan to help young people set goals using the SMART framework.
Facilitate Emotion RegulationGeneral strategies for helping youth learn to manage their emotions include:
- Encourage youth to name and express their emotions
- Acknowledge their emotions (empathic listening)
- Model emotion self-regulation and positive self-talk:
- I am not going to let it get to me
- I can handle this
- I can calm down
- I have other friends who like me
- With more practice, I'll get it
- Everyone makes mistakes. I'll do better next time
- Role play situations using a problem-solving approach:
- Define: What is the problem and how am I feeling about it?
- Brainstorm: What can I do about it?
- Evaluate possible solutions: What would happen if I did this?
- Implement: Am I doing what I decided to do?
- Evaluate: How did it turn out?
In this webinar, Jutta Dotterweich discusses the importance of self-regulation and provides practical resources.
Webinar Recording (57 minutes)
Insight Center: Self-Regulation
This site offers examples of programs that intentionally cultivate self-regulation, as well as program strategies and relevant research. Resources are compiled by Boston After School & Beyond and their partners.
Executive Function and Self-Regulation
The Center on the Developing Child provides this useful collection of brief articles and videos explaining executive function and describing how to build executive function skills in children and adolescents. Harvard University.
PBIS World: Teach Coping Skills
This web page offers general strategies and tips on how to teach coping skills. In addition, it addresses specific stressors, linking to techniques and resources.
Emotional intelligence Curriculum
University of Illinois Extension provides activities to develop emotional intelligence for three different age groups.
Assessing Stress in Children and Youth: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners
This Child Trends research brief is designed to help out-of-school program practitioners recognize and reduce the consequences of stress.
Integrate Mindfulness Practices
Helpguide's Benefits of Mindfulness
Mindfulness is the practice of purposely focusing your attention on the present moment -- and accepting it without judgment. This web page provides guidance and simple mindfulness practices, with links to resources.
Mindfulness Activities for Children and Teens
This Positive Psychology Program article includes activities as well as tips for teaching mindfulness to children and teenagers.
Greater Good: Mindfulness
Berkeley's Greater Good Science Center, University of California, provides mindfulness guidance and resources, including a series of videos.
Edutopia: How to Start a Meditation Program in Your School
This page provides guidance and successful strategies on establishing meditation practices in classroom settings.
Edutopia: Quiet Time Primer
This brief primer gives concrete instruction and process descriptions on how to set up meditation and quiet practices with youth.
Resources for Young People
ACT Youth Network: Lead the Way!
This section of ACT for Youth's website for young people helps youth identify their leadership style and set goals.
ACT Youth Network: Got Stress?
This section of ACT for Youth's website for young people helps youth explore the purpose of stress, stress signals, coping strategies, and ways to reduce stress.
TeensHealth: Stress and Coping Center
This youth site from Nemours Foundation includes articles on stress, mental health conditions, and getting and giving help.
Center for Young Women's Health: Emotional Health
Developed by Boston Children's Hospital, this Center offers young women many resources on emotional health, stress management, and coping.
Young Men's Health: Emotional Health
Boston Children's Hospital offers young men resources for dealing with stress, depression, and anger, as well as friendships, among other topics.